TASK 2:P2, M1 –

PRODUCTION 

Production is defined as the action of making or manufacturing from components or raw materials, or the process of being so manufactured. in terms of film Production is the process between developing a narrative to representing it throw audio and visual mean for the purpose of provoking emotion from a target audience.

Production in this field is split into 3 categories, which are:

  1. Pre-production,
  2. production and
  3. post-production.

These therms have be outlined in the powerpoint slides you see below.

Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 00.08.30Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 01.37.15

Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 01.37.49 Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 01.39.11 Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 01.40.20 Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 01.40.52 Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 01.41.17 Screen Shot 2015-11-11 at 01.41.27

Focusing on two of these categories we can take a deeper look into what goes into these process.

PRE-PRODUCTION

Post-production is the inaugural part of any production process. This is where the idea is quoined, vetted and drafted before being made into reality. In film making this process is critical in setting the tone for the project. depending on scale of the project, (this) planing stage can take as short as hours or longer than a few years. Post production entails theses practices:

  • Location scouting (done by a location manger or location scout),
  • Prop and wardrobe identification and preparation,
  • Special effects identification and preparation (done by the special effects supervisor and his associates and the director),
  • Production schedule (producer, production board and production manager),
  • Set construction (production manager, set manager, props manager, set contractor and subordinates),
  • Script-locking (semi-finalisation of the script) {Script writer, production board or producer & director),
  • Script read-through with cast, director and other interested parties, and
  • story boarding.

(according mediacollege.com)

POST-PRODUCTION

Post production deals with the more daunting task of finishing, polishing and marketing of film. post-production involves almost all individuals (workers) in the previous stages of production. with post production there are various ways different producers use to ensure things are done within time (i.e. following a deadline) and precisely. with my research on various websites i have come to the conclusion the following stages of post production is necessary for all budgets, film scales and appeal (i tried my best to put things in an order that is accurate enough to follow, but not this might not apply to everyone):

  1. Editing
  2. Marketing & Publicity

1) EDITING

After all production process has finished (i.e. filming) the rushes are taken to an editor(s) to put the film in sequence with the narrative and polish the visual and audios with specific and special touches to enhance the look of the final cut of the film.

Editing can take as long as 3 years (or more) or can be done in a time as short as 2 hours depending on the kind of production your film is. Dependent on these time lengths is the editing process employed during this process. i had a look at two specific websites that had a fairly similar approach to editing. Outlined below is the sequence they used:

  1. Picture editing,
  2. Sound editing.
  3. Visual Effects.

Picture Editing– with editing these days, the rushes are digitised to be able to import them onto the editing software of the the editors preference. However, according to www.rocketjump.com;

…the old way — the film way. Involves shooting the film and edit, or splice film on film editing equipment. There are few filmmakers who edit this way today…

going with the first editing format (i.e. the electronic version) with all the rushes imported it is down to the editor to have a good knowledge of the script and have sorted the rushes accordingly to aid him/her to be organised when trying to sequence the correct rushes together. The initial organisation of the rushes into files (or any format preferred by the editor) can be downsized to the assistant editor.

As an editor goes along assembling the scenes together, we sometimes come across “holes” in the filming, with some scenes not being up to par, or some scenes missing (deliberately omitted or not) that current editing revealed would be important to the films narrative at the end of the day; it would be then left for the director to round up almost all the crew, actors, etc. from the previous production phase (i.e. production) and re shoot these scenes again, just in time for the editor. once the editor has decided that there is nothing else to do (editing wise that is) he/she will declare the movie “picture locked.” Picture Locked is an old film editing term which means there is nothing more an editor can do to the film, this means that the film is basically finished and can be taken to audio editing and any other final phase before it gets exported to the preferred format. Now our days, picture lock isn’t as irreversible as it use to be, with picture editing changes can still be made at any time during the final editing stage (although if the editor is really worth his/her grain of salt these changes wouldn’t be necessary).

Hiring the “right” picture editor can be a tricky task. According to www.raindance.org the best person to refer you to a picture editor would be your cinematographer, because what is captured is captured throw their eyes (but with direction). Another tip was to hire all editors during post production, to enable them to be a part of the process from the start in order to finish the project with the same mindset.

Sound Editing– Once the picture is locked the movie is passed down to the sound editor(s) to “do their thing.” according to www.raindance.org and www.rocketjump.com there is roughly three stages to sound editing .i.e.

  1. Sound Effects,
  2. Music Composition and
  3. Sound Mixing

Sound Effects >>

in this stage of editing once the picture has been locked, it is left to the sound editor to master and correct the sounds that are within the movie so far. He has to work with what he is given, enhance it and come up with a solution to certain problems that may arise along the line. He  fixes the Diegetic sound and sets the building blocks for some necessary non-diegetic sound. when trying to redo the dialogue errors or sound errors in general a sound editor can undergo Automatic Dialogue Replacement (ADR) or Foley (which is adding in natural sound effects such a footsteps, sneezes, etc. to replace existing one or add emphasis this is done by the sound engineer and a “walker” or foley artist).

Music Composition >>

Music and film has gone and in hand since the age of silent films. A films score (i.e. the music featured on the film) can be done by most anyone, but has to be one of the things decided on during pre-production. the song are composed (ether classical or contemporary) along with the theme of the move, that involves the composer reading the scrip before hand and watching the locked footage as well. Once the score is done it is left for the sound engineer to incorporate it into the locked picture (this where ound mixing comes in).

Sound Mixing >>

www.raindance.org simply states this process as thus,

Now that you have 20-40 tracks of sound (dialogue, ADR, Foley, music) you must layer them on top of each other to artificially create a feeling of sound with depth. This is called the re-recording session or the Mix.

Like the sound engineer sound mixing can vary in style. This is also the point at which different versions of the movie can be mixed, for instance adding directors & cast commentary, re working the dialogue for foreign countries, etc.

Visual Effects- according to www.rocketjump.com there are two kinds of visual effects.

The first of which, the VFX editor will take the time to correct any colour errors, replace signage, remove cables and elements not supposed to be seen by the viewer but where present during filming. This concealment is important it adds to the end effect of the film in a subtle way.

The second of which is adding the visual effects that are supposed to be seen by the audience. Like the lasers on the Millenial falcon from star wars, etc.

MARKETING & PUBLISITY 

This involves a bevy of multiple things once the editing is over and a final cut is saved on a DCP (Digital Cinema Package). First of which would be obtaining a campaign image and a trailer.

dark-knight-poster-why-so-serious fault-in-our-stars-poster-large we_are_your_friends_ver2

(examples of campaign images for recent movies)

These images along side a trailer is a good form of marketing, used to prompt target audiences that a certain film, genre of film, or actor is coming soon, which would encourage them to want  to go see the movie. These are known as marketing strategies are is left to the produces preferred marketing team to handle and produce results.

Also, special interviews are granted for directors, actors and specific crew in order to further promote the films release in a bid to conquer box-office or raise awareness. Some films have special events and product placement tie ins that also achieve this goal. This process is known as publicity.

Screen Shot 2015-11-12 at 14.22.09

 (A Venn Diagram used to show the differences and similarities between Pre and Post-production)

From the diagram above it is easy to see that both production  processes function similarly in these way:

  • The director is a constant between all phases of production. His duties might varies between them, but hi opinion remains revered and adhered to throw out.
  • the schedule is made in pre-production and is followed all the way down to post-production.
  • Scheduling is a task that has to be done in all stages of production, it may differ between pre and post but the similarity is that its done in either.
  • The scrip is read through in pre-production to ensure there isn’t any errors in continuity and grammar, and is read through in post production to ensure the editor knows which sequence to put sound, rushes, etc.
  • The producers input is seen in every stage of production, because of the capital and resources he/her or they have invested into the project, in a bid to ensure everything they want out of it is present.

The differences however are as follows;

  • In pre production, a producer spends a considerable amount of time searching for the right scrip. The script takes a certain amount of time to develop and once its done it is then used through out the other stages as a blue-print to be followed. Thus going to show that the Script is created in Pre-production but followed in post.
  • The budget is deliberated on and finalised in pre-production but is followed throw the other tears of production.
  • Location scouting is a preliminary thing that happens after the scrip is developed but never during filming or anytime after. Thus this a pre-production affair.
  • Casting is done after locations are found, script is developed and the budget is decided. You don’t cast during post production because filming would ideally be finished.
  • Editing is a process that is known as a finishing a project, so it is only right to have that as a post-production event.
  • The sound track is made with the films locked picture and a picture lock can only be achieved through editing.
  • A trailer is developed after the film has been made.
  • All marketing process are to be done of the final project not a preconceived idea.
  • Screening and box office sails can be done and or tabulated only after there is a film to screen.

The impacts of pre and post production to a move is visible through the movies overall success at box-office. All post production efforts are done in order to make sure the final project appeals to a wide and target audience properly and more often than not, this phase of production saves the whole production process. On the other hand Pre productions impact on the whole production is very preliminary and essential. This is because this is where all ideas that was made into reality was conceived. without pre production there would be no post production because there would be no idea to developed.

Reference

http://www.thevideoeffect.tv/2013/06/26/video-pre-production-and-post-production/

http://www.mediacollege.com/glossary/p/pre-production.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Production_schedule

http://www.bbc.co.uk/filmnetwork/filmmaking/guide/production/post-production-and-editing

http://www.rocketjump.com/channels/post-production-what-is-it

http://www.raindance.org/the-13-steps-of-post-production/

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